lip 052013
 

Rationalization of the investment on information resources in libraries: a case study at the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain)

Encarna Fuentes Melero, Mila Cascajares Rupérez, Belén Fornovi Rodríguez, Mª Carmen Pérez Agudo

Biblioteka Uniwersytetu w Almerii (Hiszpania)

 

Streszczenie

The economic situation Europe is currently experiencing, and consequently, the constant economic adjustments set by Public Administrations of European countries, are forcing the university libraries to rethink their acquisitions policies under the criteria of use and cost, in order to achieve a greater efficiency in terms of offered services, available resources and invested budget.

The aim of this paper is to describe how the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain) is acting in this environment, producing annual assessment reports of its information resources, and using them as the basis for raising its budget.

This evaluation includes both the electronic resources (through detailed studies of the number of searches and downloaded documents in all subscribed e-journals and e-books databases) and the recommended bibliography for students in printed format (through the analysis of the number of loans and the use in the reading rooms).

As a result of this analysis, adaptation of the bibliographic collection to the users’ needs, modification of the staff workloads, and accuracy of the librarians training programs, have been achieved.

Słowa kluczowe

university libraries, electronic information resources, assessment in libraries, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain)

 

Introduction

The continous redefinition of the Library role at the University, exceeding a Service only intended to support study and teaching, and, above all, the need of a clear accountability of public annual budget in the current situation of financial crisis, have led us to the adoption of new criteria for the acquisition of information resources based on the constant assessment of their use and efficiency.

The goal of this paper is to describe how the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain) is acting in this environment, producing annual assessment reports of its information resources, and using them as the basis for raising its budget. This constant of evaluating each year the available resources and the offered services has been reflected in the recent creation of a new position in our organizational structure, „Evaluation of Resources and Services Manager”.

Methodology

The research methodology is based on the analysis of annual information resources reports.

Background

During the last years, in general terms, we have evolved from a situation characterized by:

- Acquisition and cancellation of electronic resources on demand from our teachers / researchers

- Increasing annual budgets (based on the maintenance of existing resources to whom new titles were annually added)

- Acquisition of printed resources (recommended bibliography for students) at the request of the teachers and following  the recommended ratios, in terms of number of copies according to the number of students, without the intervention of the Library.

To the current situation in which, in general terms:

- Budget is built after the analysis of the use of each information resource during the year in progress and reviewing the use during the last 3 years

-Information resources that have been of a very limited use, and consequently, present a very high cost per use are cancelled

-The Interlibrary Loan Service is empowered,  so our researchers can continue accessing the information needed, with the Library commitment of obtaining the requested documents within a period no longer than 48 hours

-The recommended bibliography for students is acquired at the request of the teachers but Library is involved in terms of the number of copies, equally according to the use (number of loans per copy) of the printed books. Usage data are provided to the University teachers each four months during the academic course.

Information about the 2012 Evaluation Resources Report (based on 2011 data), and the consequent decision making during the financial year are shown below.

The analysis of the use of the Electronic Collection

As the initial data we will mentioned that our Library acquires its electronic resources in two ways:

1-Acquisition by Consortium at the University Libraries Consortium of Andalucia (CBUA): 10 Public University Libraries acquire electronic resources cooperatively. The cost is assumed in its  80% by the Autonomus Community and 20% by the Universities, with a total budget of about  7 millions of euros.

2-Acquisition by University of Almeria: for the resources that we need but that are not acquired by the Consortium. In 2011 our investment for this matter was of 386.533 euros, more than 50% of our total budget. In this article we will refer to these resources.

Our Library builds its electronic resources collection according to a subject classification correspondent to the degrees and doctorates offered by the University, distributed as follows:

Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Table 1. Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Table 2. Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Table 3. Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Table 4. Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Table 5. Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Table 6. Electronic resources per subject area and cost.

Electronic resources investment per subject area.

Table 7. Electronic resources investment per subject area.

 

DATA OF USE

Data are collected annually, and obtained from the vendors following the COUNTER system. The most significant statistic parameter is the number of searches and downloads per year.

 

Number of searches and downloads.

Table 8. Number of searches and downloads.

 

The potential users of our resources are 15.251: students (Degrees, Masters  and Doctorates), teachers and administration and services staff.

 

CATALOGUE OF INDICATORS

 1.  Cost per Search per Resource (only when we can obtain both data).

Cost per Search per Resource.

Table 9. Cost per Search per Resource.

2. Average cost per subject.

Average cost per subject.

Table 10. Average cost per subject.

3. Cost per Download per Resource (only when we can obtain both data).

Cost per Download per Resource.

Table 11. Cost per Download per Resource.

4. Average cost per subject.

Average cost per subject.

Table 12. Average cost per subject.

The cost / effectiveness is different  for each resource, in terms of cost per search and cost per download. So our Library analyzes in a deeper way those resources that present a lower average. The studies are made during the year so we can make an efficient decision before building the next budget.

The actions that were carried out to evaluate the use of an electronic resource as well as the recommended bibliography for students, in order to take decisions about to these resources, will now be presented.

A case study: Portal Current Protocols

Firstly, a study case  (performed during 2008) is shown over the resource Portal Current Protocols (Wiley Online Library). This resource contains the most important research methods and protocols in life Sciences. Our goal was to make a deeper asessment on it, previously to its renewal.

Our subscription included the following titles:

Current Protocols in Bioinformatics, Current Protocols in Cell Biology, Current Protocols in Cytometry, Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, Current Protocols in Human Genetics, Current Protocols in Immunology, Current Protocols in Microbiology, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Current Protocols in Neuroscience, Current Protocols in Pharmacology, Current Protocols in Protein Science, Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, Current Protocols in Toxicology.

Statistical data provided for the vendor were:

1-       For any subscribed series, the use activity per year / month in the follwing fields:

  • Abstracts Visits
  • Downloaded Full Texts (HTML, PDF)
  • Access Denied (Rejected accesses to non subscribed titles)

2-       Total activity per year:

  • Number of Sessions
  • Keywords Searched
  • Number of searches
  • Table of Contents Searches

The analysis was performed during the period January – April 2008, 2007 and 2006. In the last column the downloads percentage over the total downloads is shown:

Portal Current Protocols.

Table 13. Portal Current Protocols.

The titles Cell Biology, Cytometry, Immunology, Molecular Biology constitute the 86% of the total number of downloads. The rest of the titles are considered for their renewal due to low use.

The following actions were performed:

1-       Our patrons were informed about the electronic resources assessment studies, in order to raise their awareness of the need of efficiency, rationalization, and optimization of our electronic collection.

2-       Our potential users were informed about the assessment results, and were asked their opinions and comments about it.

3-       We analyzed the resource visibility and proposed a range of action to increase its use.

4-       We studied new acquisition formulas that were implemented during the period 2008-2012, with an initial cost of 35.266,84€.

In 2008 we had 14 Protocols subscriber, in 2009 we renewed only the most used 6 of them. In 2012 the full resource subscription was cancelled, with a savings of 12.152€.

Likewise, data from the reports sent to the teachers are presented.  The reports are centered on the use of the recommended bibliography for their students, so they might reconsider the relevance of their bibliography or perform the suitable actions for  increasing  its use.  Furthermore, from our web page, an application shows the number of loans per book.

Use of the recommended bibliography.

Table 14. Use of the recommended bibliography.

 

The periodical assessment applied to human resources management

The characteristic organizational rigidity in Public Administrations causes, as an immediate consequence, that many positions with certain associated tasks become static positions over time, without having their compositions modified in terms of staffing and procedures (as the technological advances and the subsequent professional changes might recommend).

In our Library a study of workloads has been made, based on variables such as:

-Maximum Library use periods

-Maximum users influx periods

-Maximum training courses (at the Library) periods

-Maximum request and delivery of recommended bibliography periods

-Information resources competitive bidding periods.

And that analysis has given to us enough data to manage our human resources more effectively, especially in the current crisis situation, in which increasing the staff is virtually unviable. At the same time, the automation of a large number of activities carried out in the Library has allowed to us to reallocate a part of the staff for a more specialized service.

The most recent case at the Library of the University of Almería that can illustrate these adjustments in terms of tasks and people is the recent installation of a Radio Frequency System (RFID). One of the objectives that we have tried to pursue (in addition to making the tasks easier to both staff and users) has been the decreasing of the staff tasks around the transactions of loans and returns of books that, up to this moment, has been performed (if not as their only task) 12 people over 12 library opening hours, spread over morning (6 people) and afternoon (6 people) shifts.

Data on the evolution of the number of loans between 2010 and 2012 are shown below:

University of Almeria Collection Loans
Evolution 2010 - 2012
YearNumber of LoansNumber of Returns
201048.55246.629
201148.49846.280
201250.07449.324

Table 15. Loans between 2010 and 2012.

Loans between 2010 and 2012.

Table 16. Loans between 2010 and 2012.

In 2010 our Library began to work on the implementation of a system of loans and returns self-service, installing a machine to perform these operations. Usage data of the machine between May 2010 and June 2012 didn’t give us the satisfactory results that we had expected, due to some problems about the preparation of our collections, as well as the difficulty of identification of users for the use of the machine.

It was in the summer of 2012 when we implemented a global project of radiofrequency, allowing us to have the collection ready to the auto loan machine. Also, we worked with the Information Technology Service of the University of Almería for the easy identification of users through the use of a unique key for all the services of the University. The success of this initiative is shown in the following data.

Auto Loan Machine Use
Evolution 201-2012
YearNumber of LoansNumber of Returns
2010*29534667
201159677646
20122**29744180
2012 (nov.)40392698
*From May 1st
**From January to June

Table 17. Auto loan machine. Evolution 2010-2012.

 

As we can see the loans made in a single month (November 2012) outnumbered those made between January and June of the same year, and even equaled the full number of loans of the previous year.

About the number of returns, in just one month, they equaled more than half of the returns made from January to June 2012, and more than 35% of the previous year returns. Let’s see the evolution during the year 2012:

Auto loan machine 2012.

Table 18. Auto loan machine 2012.

Auto loan machine 2012.

Table 19. Auto loan machine 2012.

After the implementation and commissioning of the RFID system, the manual loan activities have been reduced about 80%, so the freed staff time is now dedicated to other activities, as is shown below:

Loan with RFID.

Table 20. Loan with RFID.

Staff - other activities.

Table 21. Staff – other activities.

Obviously it is necessary to carry out a staff training plan to achieve the correct development of these new tasks. So annual training plans fully aligned with the objectives are already set out.

It is this latter concept (the establishment of objectives) that is the basis and justification of all of the aforementioned: our Library Management System relies on annual targets with a strict follow-up in terms of their compliance through periodic measurement of performance indicators.

Since 2005, the ISO 9001 Standard Library Certification has enabled us to develop a management system in which data based decision-making has become the foundation of its guidelines.

This way, the basis of our performance is our Quality Management System through Annual Quality Plans (annually audited), each one of them is segmented into three parts that make up a whole. One of theses  parts, is the Improvement Plan, that includes those objectives and actions to be carried out within one year period in order to improve our working procedures.

Below we can see the 2013 objectives, actions, and the compliance measuring indicators related to electronic resources evaluation and self-service automated loan:

Objectives 2013.

Table 22. Objectives 2013.

Conclusion

As a conclusion we may outline that what is essential is the exhaustive knowledge of the activities and data use that are generated in the Library, in order to make more appropriate decisions, which may be consistent with the objectives set by the Institution, and provided with criteria of efficiency in order to provide a qualified service.

Bibliografia:

[1] Fry A., A hybrid model for managing standard usage data: principles for e-resource statistics workflows, “Serials Review”, 2013, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 21-28.

[2] Gray H., Sutton G., Treadway V., Do quality improvement systems improve health library services? A systematic review, “Health Information and Libraries”, 2012, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 180-196.

[3] Kohn K. C., Usage-based collection evaluation with a curricular focus, ”College and Research Libraries”, 2013, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 85-97.

[4] Koizumi M., Theories of strategic management in American libraries: from the 1960s to the 2000s, “Library and Information Science”, 2011, nr 65, s. 37-82.

[5] Rodriguez Bravo B., Alvite Diez M. L., An analysis of the use of electronic journals in a Spanish academic context: developments and profitability, “Serials Review”, 2011, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 181-195.

 

Informacja o autorach:

Encarna Fuentes Melero – library director, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), e-mail: efuentes@ual.es.

Mila Cascajares Rupérez – chief of Area of Library Services, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), e-mail: milacas@ual.es.

Belén Fornovi Rodríguez – manager of Research Support, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), e-mail: bfornovi@ual.es.

Mª Carmen Pérez Agudo – chief of Area of Planning and Projects, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain),  e-mail: mcperez@ual.es.

 

Jak nas cytować:

Fuentes-Melero Encarna, Cascajares-Rupérez Mila, Fornovi-Rodríguez Belén, Pérez-Agudo Mª Carmen, Rationalization of the investment on information resources in libraries: a case study at the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), „Biblioteka i Edukacja”, [online], 2013, nr 3. Dostępny w World Wide Web: http://www.bg.up.krakow.pl/bie/?p=2075


Pobierz lub obejrzyj artykuł w formacie: PDF.


lip 052013
 

New management systems, new skills for librarians: implementing a process-oriented management system at the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain)

Encarna Fuentes Melero, Mila Cascajares Rupérez, Belén Fornovi Rodríguez, Mª Carmen Pérez Agudo

Biblioteka Uniwersytetu w Almerii (Hiszpania)

 

Streszczenie

In recent years, European Universities have been immersed in the search for formulas that meet the requirements of new management systems, based on the rationalization and assessment of both economic and human resources. Nowadays, the adaptation to these goals is a constant in the implementation of different management models, contributing to suit the patrons’ needs to the new environment: continuous analysis of working procedures, updating of librarian competencies and adjustment of new organizational structures to new methodologies.

This paper presents a reflection about the changes that have taken place during the last decade at the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), since the adoption of a process-oriented management system and the definition of the continuous assessment of working procedures. Concurrently, the abilities of the staff have been adjusted to the new situation, on the basis of the definition of the skills needed for the achievement of the library goals.

It is described how new library services have been implemented through the analysis of the patrons’ needs: the Research Support service, or the Services and Resources Assessment service, have been set up in order to make the library budget more effective and rational.

Librarians’ skills needed for these activities are analyzed, so the library staff can be appropriately trained, with the main objective of adjusting the Library goals, the librarian capabilities and the University needs through the performance evaluation of each position in this Service.

Słowa kluczowe

university libraries, process-oriented management system, librarian competencies, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain)

 

Introduction

In recent years, the Public Administration has been immersed in a changing process to render their working systems more flexible in order to make them more efficient and targeted to the needs and expectations of their citizens.

In Spain, the Universities, far from being unconcerned to these processes, have become an active agent in this change, due  in part to their natural need for adapting to new times and, on the other hand, in response to the new University situation, being constantly questioned in times of economic crisis. Undoubtedly, this change affects very substantially the field of their management, and is a challenge in terms of the need for change in the existing organizational culture, and especially in the structuring of their working procedures.

If we focus on this last topic, the systems of tasks organizing, we can observe that for years it there has been a tendecy to base the administrative organization on the processes and not on functional units, to analyze what is being done and to present results and data. These changes obviously affect the organizational structure and those who compose it, the staff, who need to have skills to be able to perform their duties, these skills acquired through training provided by the Institution.

The Library of the University of Almeria has adopted, after ten years of application of quality tools, these requirements in such a way that processes and identification of each of the procedures associated with them (as well as the definition of competences and behaviors) are the basis upon which the activities and the organisation of this Service have been built.

Traditionally, the ideas of section / service (not the processes) were too rooted in our library. For this reason, our actions were focused on a concept of ‚compartiment’  that, far from encouraging the efforts towards common goals, has brought as a consequence that the tasks were too specific with the consequent lack of interrelation.

Our goal is to streamline administrative procedures seeking greater efficiency and effectiveness, and avoiding unnecessary and repeated actions through cooperation between the different agents involved in a process. This idea of process section or service has a special relevance in terms of its effects from improvement in the internal information flow by encouraging horizontal communication between different units to facilitate the coordination between them. The analysis of common processes and their coordination as a way of working is essential.

Methodology

The identification of the process approach requires a dynamic orientation, i.e., once a process is designed it is necessary to implement it and take measures that will allow us to check the degree of performance and check if the desired outputs are produced. It is not necessary, at this stage of maturity of the University, to explain how a process oriented approach works, but it is useful to highlight the importance of adequate and realistic measurement for control and improvement of the processes, and in this case, for improvement and control of the work we do on a regular basis.

In this sense the use of indicators is  imposed  on two levels:

1. The performance indicators, of great utility for management positions

2. The indicators referreed to working procedures and their associated tasks, or operational indicators, of great utility for technical positions.

Finally, a consequence of this system is encouraging work toward objectives. It is necessary to set the desired value of any indicator at a given time, or to quantify the objectives that we set for specific periods.

These actions have lead us to data analysis over objectives achievement, workloads, tasks automation, compliance with the needs of new services… rethinking and modifying the working procedures and creating others according to our patrons’ current requirements.

Similarly, it has become necessary to analyze the generic and technical competences that all library staff must develop to carry out the activities that are embedded in any process.

Background

In 2005 all the Andalusian Universities established the generic competences that all staff should demonstrate in their work. This competency management system comes backed by the Spanish Law 7/2007, of 12 April, on the Basic Statute of the Public Employee (BOE 13 of April 2007)[1], that considers selective processes based on „competences”, and also by the Model for the Financing of the Public Andalusian Universities (2007-2011)[2] (one of its objectives is „the development and full implantation of a management system based on processes and competences”), and even by agreements between Universities for the approval of working conditions of the Administration and Services staff in Andalusian Public Universities[3]. In this sense, different “position types” with different competences are set.

So far we have been talking about generic competences that are defined as an „observable behavior that is causally related to a good or excellent performance of a concrete task in a given organization” at the University of Almeria.

It is from 2008 when we began to work on technical skills as directly related to the performed position. Thus, for each professional profile technical competences and associated behaviours are set. And they are framed in the working processes that any working profile is involved in.

Therefore, we can:

 •know all the needed behaviours for each professional profile and for a specific process

•check the degree of mainstreaming of the behaviors in the different professional profiles involved in each process

•and, in this way, ensure that processes are conducted in accordance with the established mission.

Case study

In this context, the generic and technical competences for two recently created positions at the University of Almeria are shown below, as well as the associated behaviours that are needed for the development of the processes in which they are involved.

Firstly, the position of Research Support Manager is analysed.  This position has been catalogued as a Type 2 Position (at the same level for all Public Universities in Andalusia). Its generic competences are:

Type 2 Position (Approval of working conditions of the Administration and Services staff in Andalusian Public Universities).

Table 1. Type 2 Position (Approval of working conditions of the Administration and Services staff in Andalusian Public Universities).

As we can see, they are generic skills that all the Type 2 Positions at the University of Almería, regardless of the Unit in which they work, must have for a „good or excellent performance of their work”. But also, depending on the particular position in a given service or unit, they must have some technical skills associated with their professional profile. For example, the Research Support Manager must have the following skills with their corresponding behaviors (associated to a range of technical competencies):

Technical skills associated with Research Support Manager.

Table 2. Technical skills associated with Research Support Manager.

As a result of the significance that in recent years has been attached to the evaluation of the activity carried out in the library, another position newly created is the Analysis and Evaluation of Resources and Services Manager.  It’s a position catalogued, as in the previous case, as Type 2. However, technical competencies are different, as is shown below:

Technical skills associated with Analysis and Evaluation of Resources and Services Manager.

Table 3. Technical skills associated with Analysis and Evaluation of Resources and Services Manager.

As a case study, we will analyze the position „Research Support Manager” whose name was adopted in the last reform of the Relationship of Positions of the University of Almería, carried out in 2009. This name responds to the need for a more personalized service to the research activity that takes place at the University and that increasingly has extended beyond the limits of the Institution, through Technological Based Companies created in the University, projects and activities carried out in collaboration with other universities through the different Campuses of International Excellence, agreements with companies of our surroundings, and Research Centres located at the University, as well as the scientific research activities carried out by the Research Groups of the University of Almeria.

With the University being conscious of the investment in electronic information resources, mainly oriented to research activities (more than 60% of the Library budget plus the investment made by the Library Consortium of Andalusia – CBUA), an existing position is reconverted. The former position belonged to a stage when the advice on-site and the printed formats were predominant, and now it is converted into a new position with a new role, in which easy access to the electronic resources is the regular working activity.

This position becomes (along with other ones created under this same philosophy) the demonstration of the maturity of the Process Oriented Approach Organization. Thus, in its tasks, in the services in which the activity of the Research Support Manager is reflected, activities contained in almost all processes are involved, as outlined below.

Activity of the Research Support Manager and processes.

Table 4. Activity of the Research Support Manager and processes.

This interaction with several processes is not only a Library scheme, but a trend fully in accordance with the interconnection of Services at the University level, this is why the objectives of the Research Support Manager are fully integrated in the role of the library as a participant in the generation of knowledge in the University.

This is materialized not only in the support to researchers in their use of information resources, an activity that could be called the „only” one up to this moment, but in other more focused tasks to increase the visibility of the scientific work of our researchers by providing tools that allow positioning the University in numerous rankings that are measuring the research role of institutions worldwide, especially nowadays, when everything is measured in numbers.

But we are not only implementing the tools: our library paper also focuses on advising the researchers about the publication and dissemination of their research through the different media that the current information society puts at their disposal.

All these procedures and tasks are oriented to only one goal: that the works of our researchers get known worldwide as a benchmark of excellence of our Institution.

In addition, it should not be forgotten (speaking again about „numbers”), that much of the funding for our universities goes together with both National and European Calls. These Calls, which try to measure the quality and positioning of the research at the University, or are attached to the submission of development plans that involve funding, in many cases must go backed by evidence. Here, the role of the library is decisive as a consultant and an expert in location and processing of information and data.

Another fundamental objective of this new position should be framed in the interconnection with other University Services. In this sense, the joint work with the Postgraduate Service for the management of our Doctoral Theses and Master Theses, the collaboration with the Office of Transfer of Research Results for the visibility of our patents, as well as the advising for Technological based Companies, are just three examples of the path we must follow.

There are many actions that have been carried out (implementation of the institutional repository, training and advice on assessment and accreditation processes for researchers, positioning of our repository in aggregators and search engines, social networks…) but there is no doubt that there will be many more, since the research is the fundamental pillar at our University, and from our Library we must offer our full support to it, as it appears reflected in our Improvement Plan for 2013:

Table 5.

The proposal for this new service aims to materialize in offering our researchers and Institution:

a)       Bibliometric reports, related to the scientific activity of our researchers, and to calls that may involve funding for the University.

b)       Technical reports comparing the scientific production of the University of Almería in relation to other Spanish or European Universities that develop research on similar scientific and technical fields, to position the University of Almeria in relation to other universities for reference.

c)       Reports on emerging areas of research in those fields of knowledge of the University of Almería, and as well, reports on the research activity intended for dissemination in order to know what is done in the University and what results are produced by the research carried out with public funds.

d)       To expand the range of advice on scientific communication and evaluation of the science and the preparation of applications and calls.

e)       To assist in the promotion and marketing of scientific activity increasing its visibility.

Conclusion

Thus, a change of mind is essential at the time of development of organizational  charts and positions supply. It is not a question of creating new structures based on changes. A thorough analysis of the activities already developed in the library, and of the necessary competences for the objectives that we set, is absolutely necessary. Only this way shall we achieve the adequacy between the service that we want to offer, the way we should do it, and the requirements that we need to be able to perform it.

Bibliografia:

[1] Andalucia (Spain). Model for the Financing of the Public Andalusian Universities (2007-2011), Acuerdo de 10 de julio de 2007, del Consejo de Gobierno, por el que se aprueba el Modelo de Financiación de las Universidades Públicas de Andalucía (2007-2011), „Boletín Oficial de la Junta de Andalucía”, 25 de julio de 2007, 146, pp. 9-13.

[2] Chawner B., Oliver G., A survey of New Zealand academic reference librarians: current and future skills and competencies, ”Australian Academic and Research Libraries”, 2013, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 29-39.

[3] Mesa Sectorial de Universidades de Andalucía (Spain). Approval of working conditions of the Administration and Services staff in Andalusian Public Universities (2003) [online], 2013 [dostęp: 2013-07-05]. Dostępny w World Wide Web: http://cms.ual.es/idc/groups/public/@orgob/@gerencia/documents/documento/documento16530.doc.

[4] Robati A. P., Singh D., Competencies required by special librarians: an analysis by educational levels, “Journal of Librarianship and Information Science”, 2013, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 113-139.

[5] Spain. Spanish Law 7/2007, on the Basic Statute of the Public Employee, Ley 7/2007, de 12 de abril, del Estatuto Básico del Empleado Público, “Boletín Oficial del Estado”, 13 de abril de 2007, 89, pp. 16270-16299.

 

Informacja o autorach:

Encarna Fuentes Melero – library director, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), e-mail: efuentes@ual.es.

Mila Cascajares Rupérez – chief of Area of Library Services, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), e-mail: milacas@ual.es.

Belén Fornovi Rodríguez – manager of Research Support, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), e-mail: bfornovi@ual.es.

Mª Carmen Pérez Agudo – chief of Area of Planning and Projects, Library of the University of Almeria (Spain),  e-mail: mcperez@ual.es.

 

 

Jak nas cytować:

Fuentes-Melero Encarna, Cascajares-Rupérez Mila, Fornovi-Rodríguez Belén, Pérez-Agudo Mª Carmen, New management systems, new skills for librarians: implementing a process-oriented management system at the Library of the University of Almeria (Spain), „Biblioteka i Edukacja”, [online], 2013, nr 3. Dostępny w World Wide Web: http://www.bg.up.krakow.pl/bie/?p=2063


Pobierz lub obejrzyj artykuł w formacie: PDF.